Mi-6 & Yak-27R The largest of the Soviet helicopters based in Germany was certainly the Mil Mi-6 'Hook'. In the late 1980s, three different versions of this helicopter were operational within the units of the Armeiskaya Aviatsiya based in the GDR. They did most of the heavy transport by helicopter and a handful of them were modified into airborne command posts. Now decommissioned and partially replaced in Russia by the Mi-26 'Halo', the Mi-6 was an old machine whose first flight dated back to 1957. The NATO designation 'Hook' was certainly appropriate as this heavy twin-engine helicopter could carry 9 tons of cargo under sling or 12 tons inside its cargo hold. Twenty-six improved Mi-6A 'Hook-A' were on strength with two of the four squadrons of the 239 'Belgorodskiy' OGVP (or Otdel'nyy Gvardeiskiy Vertoletnyy Polk - 'Belgorod' Separate Guards Helicopter Regiment) (1) at Oranienburg - a base with a name sadly famous (2) that was immediately adjacent to the north Berliner ring - at the time of withdrawing from Germany.

In the GSFG order of battle, this regiment compensated for the absence of a second regiment of tactical transport aircraft within the 16.VA. It was also under the direct control of this Air Army. The 239.OGVP initially established its headquarters in East Germany at Fürstenwalde in 1958. The regiment was then equipped with Mi-4 'Hound'. It moved to Brandis in 1962, where the Mi-6 'without suffix' joined the ranks of the unit. The Mi-4 and Mi-6 were progressively replaced by Mi-8 (around 1965) and Mi-6A (circa 1971), respectively. The 239.OGVP eventually moved to Oranienburg in 1977.

AI-8 Hook The Mi-6A, which appeared in 1971, had an airframe with a longer lifetime and improved avionics. The AP-31 autopilot of the Mi-6 (the same as on the Mi-4) was so inappropriate that its use was simply forbidden... The 'A' version benefited from the new AP-34 autopilot. The hydraulic system was also modified and the variable-incidence wings of the Mi-6 (the pilot reduced their angle of attack during an autorotation landing) were now fixed. Mi-6 and Mi-6A were considered to be two different helicopters and the two different versions rarely were mixed within the same squadron. However, there was no external difference between the two versions, at least at first sight. The Mi-6 carried aboard an AI-8 APU trailer (above) necessary to start the engines when deployed in the field. This APU was permanently mounted on the inside face of the left clam-shell door of the Mi-6A. Thus, this new model had two circular holes drilled in that door for the AI-8 oil radiator and exhaust. The helicopters of the latest Mi-6 series, however, were upgraded with a fixed AI-8. The Mi-6A could carry up to 90 troops (65 previously) or carry a sling load of nine tons (sketch of the hook system at right).

Electronic Mi-10s

It could be possible that the 239.OGVP was also equipped with Mi-10PP 'Harke' electronic warfare helicopters during the 1970s. It is indeed certain that such machines were based at Brandis. If their incorporation into the 239.OGVP is uncertain, their presence at Brandis is logical from a logistical standpoint. The Mi-10 had indeed been developed on the basis of the Mi-6, with which it shared a number of components including the rotors, their transmission systems and its two Solov'yev D-25V engines of 5500 hp. Work on the electronic countermeasures version of the Mi-10 began in 1966. The development of the Mi-10PP was completed four years later. About two dozen Mi-10 were converted to the Mi-10PP during the mid-seventies in Rostov and Konotop. The Mi-10PP was designed to support Frontal Aviation combat actions by jamming enemy ground-based radars. These particular Mi-10s were carrying a Step ST-9000 container weighting 7125 kg suspended on hydraulic locks under their bellies. Located inside were three Buket jammers acting against missile acquisition and guidance radars, causing radar clutter, as were eight Fasol' repeater transmitters to create simulated jamming (when operating in the "pull-off" mode, several dummy blips immediately appeared on the operator's radar screen). Work stations for the EW operators were set up in the helicopter cargo compartment, with a system of pod-mounted power supplies also installed there. Although these jamming systems, also used on different Soviet aircraft models, had a reputation for being temperamental, they proved very effective in the hands of a competent crew. According to unique testimony, two machines were also stationed at Dresen-Hellerau. Was it a detachment from the unit based in Brandis? An experimental version intended for tracking enemy radio transmissions was also developed in 1966. The latter, designated Mi-10GR Grebeshok (Cockscomb) carried another ventral container and two antennas housed in one thimble shaped and one spherical fairings, respectively , that were deployable at the front and the back of this container. The one in front, which housed an antenna associated with the Grebeshok system, seemed similar to the deployable antenna of the Mi-8R, of which at least two exemplars were identified in East Germany during the 1980s. There is nothing surprising about that, since this variant of the Mi-8 carried a Grebeshok-5. It seems that a single exemplar of that Mi-10 version was ever produced. The only known photo to date of the Mi-10GR (above) is part of a series that was taken in the GDR in 1970 by the USMLM! While the Mi-10 were removed from the inventory of VVS in 1989, it is clear that this model made only a short, albeit discreet, apparition in the GDR (3).

Mi-10 Ces deux photos illustrant apparemment le même Mi-10 en compagnie de Mi-6 du 239.OGVP, ont été prises en RDA en 1968. Il semblerait que ce Mi-10 n'était pas affecté au régiment, mais plutôt en visite dans le cadre d'une évaluation - on peut distinguer un camion ZIL-150 sour le Mi-10. © DR.

These two pictures apparently showing the same Mi-10 together with Mi-6s from the 239.OGVP were taken in the GDR in 1968. It seems that this Mi-10 was not assigned to the regiment, but was rather on detachment for evaluation. A ZIL-150 cargo truck was suspended beneath the Mi-10. © DR.
Mi-10

Versatile Mi-6s

D30 Mi-6A In the 1970s, Mi-6s began to be modified to carry out parachute landings. Cables for the parachute static lines were installed in the cargo compartment. A Mi-6A equipped with folding seats (at right) could accommodate sixty-one paratroopers. The 'Hook' of the 239.OGVP went to airfields and training ranges like the one at Redlin near the Retzow Air/Ground Gunnery Range, to embark and drop paratroopers of the Separate Airborne Assault Brigades. Since all the entrance doors of the helicopter opened outwards, it was impossible to open them or keep them open when in the air. Prior to dropping paratroopers, the rear doors were removed and a folding tubular structure was blocking the opening so that no one would accidently fall out. When flights were completed, the doors had to be put back on in order to close the cabin. The rear doors were later modified to open inwards, making it possible to do this in flight. They were manufactured without blisters.

Mi-6A Forty-one stretchers and medical support equipment could be installed aboard a Mi-6 in medevac configuration (at left).
There was a 'Hook' model, which was specially modified to refuel tanks and other vehicles on the front lines. The Mi-6TZ-SV (Toplivozapravshchik-Sukhoputnyye Voyska or refueller for ground forces) that was based on the Mi-6 and Mi-6A (1973) airframes, carried inside its cargo compartment four fuel tanks that were similar to the standard Mi-6 external fuel tanks. These tanks with a capacity of 2,250 liters were mounted in adpated cradles and were used to store fuel for the vehicles (4). A pump station (the tanks were obviously not linked to the fuel system of the helicopter) and two reels of hose were located in the rear of the cargo compartment. The latter were mounted perpendicular to the rear side doors. The nozzles were very similar to those found at a gas station. A control panel was located to the right of the rear cargo compartment landing door. There were also two racks for 20-liter oil jerry cans attached to the clam shell-doors. The TZ variant could carry any kind of fuel.

Mi-6TZ It was possible to remove this equipment at the unit level so the Mi-6s could be employed as cargo helicopters (and vice versa). The basic layout of a Mi-6TZ (electrical wiring modification, additional plumbing etc), however, should be done at a repair plant (ARZ). According to the testimony of Valeriy Belichenko, an Mi-6/Mi-6A pilot of the 239.OGVP from 1983 to 1989, there were no Mi-6TZ at Oranienburg during the time he was assigned to that unit. However, if Mi-6TZ were externally similar to their transport colleagues, the Mi-6A N°01 (c/n 0601V) based in Oranienburg in the early nineties, was uncommon. Examination of different pictures of this machine, which are available in the photo gallery (for which there is a link at the bottom of this page, and at left), reveals the presence of an external yellow pipe under the rear side doors on each side of the fuselage. These pipes were connected to a group of internal tanks under the floor of the Mi-6, then part of the eleven internal standard tanks that were mounted inside any transport Mi-6 variant. These pipes were connected to the pumps for refuelling the vehicles, providing a supplementary storage capacity to this former Mi-6TZ-SV.

Fuel tanks Les réservoirs externes des Mi-6 étaient également utilisés en soute pour ravitailler les véhicules (Mi-6TZ) ou afin d'augmenter l'autonomie de l'hélicoptère. Ces réservoirs, montés sur un bâti adapté, étaient aisément démontables comme illustré ci-contre. © C.Brent.

The external fuel tanks of the Mi-6 could be carried inside the cargo compartment in order to refuel vehicles (Mi-6TZ) or to augment the range of the helicopter. They were mounted in a cradle that could be easily removed, as illustrated here. © C.Brent.
However, when we were able to photograph this helicopter, it was equipped with special side doors at the back to drop paratroopers. That seems to indicate that it was no longer used as a refueler at that time. On the other hand, given the testimony cited above, it is very likely that this 'Hook' was delivered to the 239.OGVP without its refueling equipment. In addition, Valeriy Belichenko informed us about the presence of a Bort number 01 cargo variant while he was serving at Oranienburg that was probably a different machine.
Moreover, the range of the Mi-6/Mi-6A transport versions could be increased by carrying in the hold the same fuel tanks of the TZ version that were, you will recall, of the same type as the external side tank of the Mi-6. Here, these two fuel tanks were connected to the internal fuel circuitry of the helicopter.

Flying Command Posts

Mi-6VKP The aviation forces of the GSFG were equipped with two other particular variants of the Mi-6A. The first version was the Mi-6VKP (VKP for Vozdushnyy Kommandnyy Punkt), an airborne command post designated 'Hook-B' by NATO that was developed on the basis of the series-produced Mi-6 especially by the Equipment Supervision Branch (ORO) at the 535th VVS Repair Plant in Konotop. Work on the first helicopter started in late 1972 and 36 'Hook' were finally transformed into Mi-6VKP at Konotop. The helicopter was designed for combat control of the troops of a combined army or air army. In addition to numerous means of communications (R-111, R-140, R-155 and R-409 radios), this variant was equipped with a forward 'saloon' compartment to accommodate the officers in charge. The Mi-6VKP was only operational once it had landed, when various additional antennas were deployed outside the helicopter. Two telescopic masts usually were attached horizontally to the lateral supports of the main landing gear on each side of the fuselage during the flight. They were removed and deployed on the field with antennas attached at their top, once the helicopter had landed in an operational area. These masts probably could be assembled together because it has been reported that they could reach up to 19.5 meters high. Also, three folding brackets to hold an antenna were attached to the fuselage behind the left front side door. Two plugs to connect antenna cables were also available on the fuselage side in the same area.

Mi-6VKP This type of 'Hook' could be identified by the four large blade antennas mounted around the rear of the tail boom in front of the horizontal stabilizers (the shape and the number of antennas could vary depending on the equipment carried) and by the large U-shaped tubular antenna placed under the tail boom. Another external feature of the 'Hook-B' was the lack of the external self-sealing fuel tank on the starboard side. However, a large fairing with an air intake was located in front of the usual location of that tank. It was a KO-50 kerosene heater (the same as on the starboard side of the Mi-8 and the Mi-10K) intended for heating the 'saloon' compartment of the helicopter! The Mi-6s heating and ventilation system was indeed insufficient, even for the pilots themselves... The Mi-6VKP photographed in the GDR seemed to be all equipped with a KO-50, however, it was not the case for the entire 'Hook-B' fleet. Gas generators were used on the Mi-6VKP for electrical supply. They were located near the right rear door. A small fuel tank was attached outside the rear starboard fuselage to provide fuel for those gas generators. A dozen of Mi-6VKP were spread among the separate squadrons - one or two per unit - that were assigned to the five Soviet ground armies and the 16.VA in GDR.

Mi-22 The second special variant of the 'Hook' present in East Germany was the Mil' Design Bureau's Mi-6AYa (Ya for Yakhont or Ruby - the embarked radio system), also designated Mi-6VzPU (VzPU pour Vozdushnyy Punkt Upravleniya - airborne control post). The first helicopters were introduced into service in 1975 under their Mi-22 military designation, or 'Hook-C' for the West. The Mi-22 was designed for combat control of the troops of a combined army and filled an important gap compared to the 'Hook-B', because it was litteraly a flying command post. Its antennas were also less conspicuous. The major external difference of a Mi-22 was a big blade antenna attached on top of the rear fuselage. Several smaller antennas were also protruding under the fuselage. The Mi-22 was also used as a ground command post: two short masts and a longer one were carried left and right, respectively, of the fuselage attached to the landing gear struts. This Mi-6A derivative was not equipped with an AI-8 APU. Instead, a TSA auxiliary power unit was mounted on the inside face of the right clam-shell door. The TSA had the same functions as the AI-8 and additionally, it provided electric power to the communication equipments once on the ground. Apparently, the 'Hook-C' had no KO-50 kerosene heater. The few 'Hook-C' seen in East Germany were deployed alongside the Mi-6VKP in the same units.

Epilogue

While the successor to the Mi-6 had been flying since the early 1980s, production and delivery of the Mi-26 took place at a slow pace and in limited quantities (only 150 machines would have been added to the inventory). Oranienburg was chosen to be the first overseas base where this new helicopter model was to be deployed permanently. Personnel assigned to the 239.OGVP would have been advised of this future upgrade to the Mi-26 in the early 1990s, and that unit conversion was imminent. Ultimately only a dozen "Halo" were to be assigned to 16.VA HQ to replace the Mi-6s; the performance and payload capabilities of the new machine largely compensated for the greatly reduced number of helicopters. The Soviet Union's collapse and the withdrawal of the 239.OGVP from Germany put an end to this project (information taken from "Beginning of the end" by Stefan Büttner, published in the November 2009 issue of "Aircraft"). Had the replacement of the 239.OGVP Mi-6s been realized earlier, it seems however unlikely that the replacement of the "Hook-B and -C" flying command posts in units of the OVE BU type would have occurred. There are indeed no known operational equivalent variants of the Mi-26.

With special thanks to Valeriy Belichenko for his unstinting help.

 Mi-6 PHOTO PAGE 
notes

(1) The 3.TBAP, established in 1938, later was redesignated the 3.AP DD. It then became the 23rd Guards Long-Range Aviation Regiment (23.GAP DD) on 18 Septebmer 1943, eventually to become the 239.GBAP on 26 December 1944.
(2) Oranienburg, a small town on the outskirts of the Greater Berlin, even before World War II housed a detention camp for political prisoners, Oranienburg-Sachsenhausen. The latter was transformed later into a concentration camp. By a phenomenon of selective memory of which some of our contemporaries are particularly fond, the evocation of Sachsenhausen camp among some of the surrounding population is a reminder of the martyrdom of German prisoners of war detained there by Soviet forces...
(3) According to Valeriy Belichenko, there were no Mi-10PP/GR at Brandis. Consequently, the Mi-10s would have been only based at Dresden-Hellerau. And why not only one or two Mi-10GR? We have decided to keep the text of this artilce unaltered because of the lack of detailed or corroborating testimonies. Let's hope that we will learn more about the Mi-10s based in the GDR in the future.
(4) You can download an interesting video 30-Mb in size showing a Kazakh Mi-26TZ in operation > here.


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