Technical means in 1990Missile
MIM-23B 'Improved HAWK'
Speed: ±Mach 2,4
Lethal area of destruction: ±180m (600 feet)
Le radar à impulsions PAR. © L.Schmitz.
(Rotation speed of all the radars was synchronized at 20 rpm)
CWAR detection radar (Continuous Wave Acquisition Radar)
L'opérateur du CWAR se protège des radiations électromagnétiques sous le couvercle blindé.
Operation in continuous waves (Doppler principle). The CWAR was very efficient at low and medium altitudes and could detect aircraft and helicopters flying very close to the ground. The correct interpretation of its scope display was however difficult and required intensive training. The detection of aircraft was not only made visually on the scope display, but also by listening to the audio signal. The echo was automatically materialized by the firing computer and displayed on the major consoles.
HPIR tracking radar (High Power Illumination Radar)
Le "High-Power" peut suivre ses cibles à plus de 80km. L'équipement à la finition typique des années 60 a
en fait été mis à jour et cache désormais une électronique digitale moderne.
En contrôlant manuellement l'élévation et le site du radar, une équipe entraînée pouvait s'en servir comme d'un
radar de recherche. © L.Schmitz.
L'antenne IFF par -20°... © L.Schmitz.
The ICC (Information Coordination Center) was a metal container similar to the BCC, which housed the firing computer. Like most hardware of the Hawk system, the computer had many ‘Hard-Wired’ (physical connection by electric cables) components to withstand the effects of an electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear explosion. It treated the radar signals and generated symbolic displays of the different targets, according to their priority. In the ‘Autofire’ mode the ICC controlled completely the battery without human intervention (including the firing of the missiles). This mode enabled to treat a large number of targets in the shortest time, but it was not selective. It was a last resort mode that was not used by the Belgian units. The PCP (Platoon Command Post) was a modified version of the ICC, with a firing console. In combination with the CWAR, a HPIR and a firing section the PCP could operate independently in the configuration ‘AFU’ (Assault Fire Unit). This ensured the continuity of firing while moving to a new position. The AFU departed at first with a half battery. Once it was operational on the new position, it was joined by the rest of the unit.
Air traffic was detected by the PAR and CWAR radars. The firing computer of the ICC processed the data and displayed it on the screens of the BCC, possibly with additional useful information such as: threat symbols, IFF data, ECM, etc. The fire officer (BCO) assigned a target to one of the two firing sections by using a joystick. The High-Power radar locked on the target and provided more accurate data. The BCO gave the order to fire: ‘Shoot One’ for a single missile or ‘Ripple Two’ for two (in the case of an attack by multiple aircraft, for example). The operator selected a launcher and started the firing sequence. The missiles were running at 2.500km per hour towards the target illuminated by the HPIR radar. After a few seconds, the rocket motor would stop and the missile would continue its interception path gliding on its impetus while being completely invisible to the pilot. It exploded when it overtook its target, destroying everything that would fly at less than 300m. The firing section could then proceed to the next target.
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